GENERIC NAMES FOR MAN-MADE FIBRES

Generic Name
Chemical Constitution
Example Trade Names
Acetate Secondary cellulose acetate Dicel
Acrylic At least 85% by mass of acrylonitrile Acrilan, Dralon, Courtelle, Orlon
Alginate Metallic salts of alginic acid Calcium alginate
Aramid Composed of linear macromolecules ofaromatic groups joined by amide or imide likages Nomex, Conex, Kevlar, Technora, Twaron
Chlorofibre At least 50% by mass of poly(vinyl chloride) or poly(vinylidene chloride) Rhovyl, Leavil, Saran
Cupro Regenerated cellulose produced by the cuprammonium process Cuprama
Elastane At least 85% by mass of polyurethane elastomer Enkaswing, Lycra, Spanzelle
Elastodiene Composed of natural or synthetic polyisoprene, or composed of dienes polymerised with one or more vinyl monomers  
Elastomultiester Formed by interaction of two or more chemically distinct linear macro-molecules in two or more distinct phases (of which none exceeds 85% by mass) which contains ester groups as dominant functional unit  
Fluorofibre Polymer made from fluorocarbon monomer Polifen, Teflon
Glass Mixed silicates Fibreglass, Marglass
Lyocell Regenerated Cellulose , obtained by dissolution, and an organic solvent spinning process  
Modacrylic Polymer made from 50-85% by mass of acrylonitrile Dynel, Teklan
Modal Regenrated Cellulose made by a high wet-modulus process Vincel
Nylon (Polyamide) Polymer with the recurring functional group -CO-NH- ICI Nylon, Enkalon, Perlon, Celon
Polycarbamide Polymer with recurring functional group -NH-CO-NH-  
Polyester At least 85% by mass of an ester of a diol and terephthalic acid Terylene, Dacron, Trevira
Polyethylene Polyethylene polymer Courlene, Drylene
Polylactide Formed from synthetic linear macromolecules having in the chain recurring imide units Natureworks PLA
Polypropylene Polyethylene where one carbon in two carries a methyl side chain Fibrite, Meraklon
Polyurethane Polymer with the recurring functional group -O-CO-NH-  
Triacetate Cellulose with at least 92% by mass of hydroxyl groups acetylated Tricel, Arnel
Trivinyl Vinyl terpolymer of which no single component forms more than 50% by mass  
Vinylal Formed of linear macromolecules whose chain is constituted by Polyvinylalcohol with differing levels of acetilisation Kuralon, Vinylon
Viscose Regenerated cellulose obtained by the viscose process Fibro, Sarille, Evlan


HIGH PERFORMANCE FIBRES

Fibres
Trade Names
Aramid
Nomex, Conex, Kevlar, Technora, Twaron
Ceramic
Nextel
Glass
E-Glass, S-Glass, Miraflex, Cardable Glass
HDPE (High Density Polyethylene)
Spectra, Dyneema
Melamine
Basofil
Phenolic (Novaloid)
Kynol, Philene
PBI (Polybenzimidazole)
PBI
PBO (Polyphenylenebenzobsoxasole)
Zylon
Polyamide Imide Kermel
Polyimide
P84
PPS (Polyphenylene-Sulphide)
Ryton, procon
Polyetherether Ketone
PEEK
Polyarylate (Liquid Crystal Fibre)
Vectran
Polyacrylate
Inidex
PTFE (Fluorocarbon)
Teflon
PAN/Carbon (Preoxidized Polyacrylonitrile Fibre)
Panox, Fortafil, Hexcel, Panotex, Tenax, Torayca


FIBRE MOISTURE REGAIN VALUES

Fibre
Regain
Abaca
14.0%
Acetate
9.0%
Acrylic
2.0%
Alginate
20.0%
Aramid
6.0%
Asbestos
2.0%
Coir
13.0%
Cotton
8.5%
Mercerised Cotton
10.5%
Cupro
13.0%
Elastane
1.5%
Elastodiene
1.0%
Elastomultiester
1.5%
Fluorofibre
0.0%
Glass Fibre
2.0%
Glass Fibre (over 5 um)
3.0%
Hemp
12.0%
Jute
17.0%
Linen
12.0%
Metal
2.0%
Metalized Fibre
2.0%
Modacrylic
2.0%
Modal
13.0%
Nylon
6.25%
Nylon 11
3.5%
Nylon Filament
5.75%
Polyester
1.5%
Polyethylene
1.5%
Polylactide
1.5%
Polypropylene
2.0%
Polyurethane
3.5%
Protein
17.0%
Polyvinylchloride
2.0%
Ramie
8.5%
Silk
11.0%
Sisal
14.0%
Sunn
12.0%
Triacetate
7.0%
Vinylal
5.0%
Viscose
13.0%
Wool Carded
17.0%
Wool Combed
18.25%


MELTING POINTS OF FIBRES

Fibre
Melting Point (centigrade)
Acetate:
 
    Diacetate
250-255
    Triacetate
290-300
Acrylic
Do not melt (decompose with discolouration)
Aramid
Do not melt
Chlorofibre:
 
    Clevyl T
185-190
    Isovyl
210-212
    Leavil
Do not melt (decompose with discolouration)
Fluorofibres:
 
    Teflon FEP
285
    Teflon TFE
Does not melt (decomposes slowly)
Modacrylic:
 
    Dynel 180
190
    Others
Do not melt (decompose with discolouration)
Nylon:
 
    Nylon 11
182-186
    Nylon 6
210-216
    Nylon 66
252-260
Polyester:
 
    Kodel II
290
    Others
250-260
Polyolefin:
 

    Ulstron

165-175
    Courlene
108-113
    Courlene X3
135
Vinylal:
 
    Mewlon
232


FIBRE DENSITIES

FIBRE
Density (g/cc)
FIBRE

Density (g/cc)

Acetate:
 
Polyolefin:
 
    Diacetetate (Dicel)
1.33
    Polypropylene (Ulstron)
0.90
    Triacetate (Tricel)
1.30
    Polyethlene, low-density (Courlene)
0.92
Acrylic:
 
    Polyethylene, high-density (Courlene X3)
0.95
    Orlon
1.14-1.17
Polurethane Elastomers:
 
    Courtelle
1.14-1.18
    Lycra, Sarlene, Spanzelle, Enkaswing
1.1
    Zefran
1.15
Regenerated Protein Fibre:
 
    Acrilan
1.17
    Merinova
1.29
Alginate:
 
Vinylal:
 

    Calcium Alginate

1.72

    Kuralon

1.30
Chlorofibre:
 
Viscose
1.51-1.52

    Heat-Treated PVC (Isovyl)

1.38

  

 

    Unmodified PVC (Rhovyl, Fibravyl)

1.40
Rabbit:
 

    Chlorinated PVC (Piviacid)

1.70

    Common

0.92
Cupro:
 

    Angora

1.10

    Cuprammonium Rayon

1.52

  

 
Fluorofibre:
 
Wool:
 

    Teflon

2.30

    Non-medullated

1.31
Glass:
 
Silk:
 

    E-glass

2.53

    B. Mori, raw

1.33

    C-glass

2.46

    Weighted

>1.60

    A-glass

2.46

    Tussah

1.32

    S-glass

2.45
Cotton:
 
Modacrylic:
 

    Scoured

1.55

    Dynel

1.31

    Mercerized

1.54

    Teklan

1.34

    Acetylated

1.40-1.50

    Verel

1.37
Flax
1.50
Nylon:
 
 
 

    Nylon 11 (Rislan)

1.10
Hemp
1.50

    Nylon 6 (Perlon)

1.13
 
 

    Nylon 6.6 (ICI Nylon)

1.14
Jute
1.50

    Nomex

1.38
 
 
Polyester:
 
Ramie
1.55

    Kodel

1.22
 
 

    Terylene

1.38
Asbestos
2.10-2.80


DIMENSIONS OF ANIMAL FIBRES

FIBRE
Approximate Length (mm)
Approximate Fibre Diameter (um)
Range
Mean(or Range of Means)
Wool:
 
  
 
    Merinos
35-90
 
18-27
    Fine Crossbreds
50-100
 
28-31
    Medium Crossbreds
100-200
 
32-39
    Coarse Crossbreds
up to 300
 
40-44
Mohair:
 
 
 
    Kid
100-150
 
25-26
    Adult
up to 250
 
30-55

Cashmere:

 

    

 
    Undercoat(Down)
25-75
  
13-16

    Outercoat(Chinese)

75-100

38-142

79

    Outercoat(Persian)

75-100
42-160
86

Camel Hair:

 

 

 
    Undercoat
25-125

5-40

20

    Outercoat

up to 375

up to 120

 
Llama:
 
 
 

    Alpaca

100-300

10-75

26-27
    Llama
250-300
1-150
28-30

    Vicuna

35-75

6-35

13-14

Horse Hair:

 

 

 
    Tail
 

113-233

149-183

    Mane

 

73-173

121-129

Cow Hair:

 

 

 

    Tail

 
up to 200
 
    Body
12-50
12-180
36


WOOL QUALITY

Grade
Microns
Finer than 80s
Under 17.70
80s
17.70 to 19.14
70s
19.15 to 20.59
64s
20.60 to 22.04
62s
22.05 to 23.49
60s
23.50 to 24.94
58s
24.59 to 26.39
56s
26.40 to 27.84
48s
31.00 to 32.69
46s
32.70 to 34.39
44s
34.40 to 36.19
40s
36.20 to 38.09
36s
38.10 to 40.20
STATISTICAL TERMS

Average (or mean)
The average (or mean) is often the best single statistic to charecterise a set of results. It is the sum of the individual results divided by the number of results.

Median
The median is the middle one of a set of results arranged in decending order; if an even number of results, the median is midway between the central two in order.

Standard Deviation
Individual results are scattered around the average. The standard deviation is an agreed way of expressing the degree of scatter. To obtain it, work out the difference between each test result and the average, square the differences, total them, divide the total by one less than the number of results, and take the square root.

Coefficient of Variation

The coefficient of variation is the standard deviation expressed as a percentage of the average.

Percentage Mean Deviation
In a few cases, e.g. yarn levelness (U%), the percentage mean deviation is used to express the degree of scatter of results round the average instead of the coefficient of variation. To convert percentage mean deviation to coefficient of variation for practical purposes, multiply by 1.25.

Confidence Limits
When the average has been calculated from test results, it is still only representative of a small amount of the total material in the bulk. Confidence limits express tha maximum amount the test average is likely to deviate from that of the bulk. Useful confidence limits can be obtained by dividing the standard deviation by the square root of the number of tests and multiplying by 2.